v The Direct Method
1. The direct method of teaching foreign languages,
2. sometimes called the natural method,
3. refrains from using the learners' native language
4. uses only the target language.
5. It was established in Germany and France around 1900.
- teaching vocabulary through pantomiming, real-life objects and other visual materials
- teaching grammar by using an inductive approach (i.e. having learners find out rules through the presentation of adequate linguistic forms in the target language)
- centrality of spoken language (including a native-like pronunciation)
- focus on question-answer patterns
- Classroom instructions are conducted exclusively in the target language.
- Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught during the initial phase; grammar, reading and writing are introduced in intermediate phase.
- Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully graded progression organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes.
- Grammar is taught inductively.
- New teaching points are introduced orally.
- Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary is taught by association of ideas.
- Both speech and listening comprehensions are taught.
- Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized.
- Student should be speaking at least 80% of the time during the lesson.
- Students are taught from inception to ask questions as well as answer them.
The key Aspects of this method are:
- Introduction of new word, number, alphabet character, sentence or concept (referred to as an Element)
- Syntax, the correct location of new Element in sentence
- Progress, from new Element to new Element (within same lesson)
- Progress, from Lesson to Lesson
- Advaced Concept