Jumat, 18 Maret 2011


 We study CCU because of the inter-dependent concepts: Language, Communication and Culture.
When you learn any language, you learn new communication patterns and cultural ideas that are embedded in the language and its context. In learning another language, we need to know the meaning of the words in the cultural context in which they are used. Understanding another culture and adapting to ot,then, are an important part of language learning.

Communication: the process of sharing culturally meaningful information through verbal and non-verbal behaviour, signs, and symbols.

Language: a method of human communication that uses words ( meanings0 in a culturally agreed way. Language is an expression of culture, and culture is expressed through language (Thomson, G, 2004).

Cross Cultural Communication; Verbal and non-verbal communication between people from different culture; communication that is influenced by cultural values, attitudes, and behaviour; how culture influences people’s reactions and responses to each other.


1. The Cultural Generalizations: Descriptions of commonly observed patterns within a culture. They might not be true for every member of the culture. Not everyone in the culture follows the pattern exactly.

2. Cultural Generalization: A broad view of a cultural group without suggesting that everyone is exactly like that. It gives general insights into a culture. Stereotypes on the otherhand, show that all members of a particular culture are the same in certain often negative ways. For example:

           Generalization: Australians tend to prefer informality and equality in relationship.
           Stereotype      : Australians wear shorts and sleveless shirts and talk slang.

3. There are no rights or wrongs, only cultural differences. What is appropriate in one culture maybe inappropriate in another culture.

4. To bear in mind: 1). All cultures have values and ideals that their members say are true.
                                    2). people’s behaviour may not always reflect those values.

5. Culture does not explain all behaviour.It greatly influences behaviour, but so do personality, age, gender, economic and educatioal levels, life experiences, relationships, and specific situations.
Culture can help to explain general behaviour of a group. It does not necessarily explain the specific behaviour of individuals in that group.

6. Learning culture is enriching. The more you learn about others, the more you can see your culture more clearly. By contrasting culture, you can better understand how culture influences individuals and their communication with others.


 The outer layer is formed by artifacts and products (language, food,architecture and style; and rituals and behaviour. The inner layer consists of beliefs, norms ( what is right or wrong), values (what is good or bad) and attitudes. The inner most layer consists of basic assumptions about core values and how to handle every day problems, questions, and situations.

The hidden aspect of culture (90%) that creates cross cultural difficulties as it more significantly affect behaviour and interaction with others.

Culture explains where and how fish can live.

Culture determines the way people think, fell, and behave. Inspite certain biological and psychological needs to survive, how people meet those needs are greatly varies based on envirenments.


1. Pervasiveness: It exists every where. Visible ( buildings, clothing etc) and invisible ( customs, rules, etc).

2. Learned behaviour: We learn to conform to what is right or wrong to obtain comfort, status, face, peace of mind, safety, etc.

3. Shared Behaviour: Though not aware and do not realize our culture, we accept our culture.

4.  Adaptable Behaviour: Culture is adapted to surroundings.

5.  Explicit and Implicit Behaviours:
     Explicit means open, visible and known as one teaches us, so that it is conscious. The way we eat with knives, fork, chopsticks.
    Implicit means hidden, implied and no one teaches us. It is done unconsciously seems normal we never pay attention.

6. Culture changes caused by cultural borrowings, disasters, and environmental Reasons.

7. Ethnocentric Behaviour: Each ethnic group may have particular culture.

Each culture sees the world differently.
a) Our perception plays trick on us.
b) We are selective on what we perceive
c) We perceive differently from other’s we feel stupid.


1. Selection depends on differences in intensity or quality. Bold letters are clearer; we perceive the one familiar to us ( past experience). We are motivated by needs and wants. Asians with rice, Germans with potatoes.

2. Organization decides which one is figure, which one is background. A caucasian walking on the street in Indonesia is a figure, Indonesian people are the background. Grouping and closure mean our tendency to organize what we perceive into wholes, as one unity unbroken shape.

3. interpretation everything based on our past experience, needs, values, beliefs about the way things should be.


Everyone sees the world according to one’s own way. This affects the way people live as standard of conduct.
It is at the center of a cultural system about the relationship of everything we know, how and why things got to be as they are and why they continue that way.


1. Humans are one with nature.
2. Humans perceive the spiritual and the physical as one.
3.Humans should accept their basic oneness with nature rather than to label, control, analyze, manipulate or consume worldly things.
4.Humans should feel comfortable with everyone because of their oneness with all existence.
5.Science and technology create an illusion of progress best.
6.Enlightment, a state in which oneness with the universe is achieved through medication.
7.Humans perceive the mind and body as one.


1. Humans have characteristics that distinguish them from nature.
2. Humans consisits of mind, body, and spirit.
3. Humans are overshadowed by the existence of a personal God.
4. Humans have to manipulate and control nature to survive.
5. humans maust think rationally and analytically.
6. The good life and hope for its continuation is found in science and technology.
7.Humans should reward actions and the competitive spirit.

1 komentar:

  1. Thanks a lot Rosita I pick one for my reference yea............ !!!!!!!!!!!!